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Fertility Dictionary

In this dictionary we’ve included for our patients the definition of keywords and terminology of health, fertility, reproduction and treatment.

FERTILITY TERMINOLOGY DICTIONARY

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstruation.

Semen Analysis

Research of the semen through fresh ejaculation under the microscope to count the number of millions of sperm per milliliter or cubic centimeter, to examine the shape and size of the sperm, and to observe their ability to move (motility).

Anovulation

Total absence of ovulation. Note: This is not necessarily the same as amenorrhea. Menstruation can occur if there is anovulation.

Azoospermia

Complete absence of sperm in the ejaculation.

Blastocyst

It is an embryo that has arrived at the fifth day of its development and has acquired all the capacities to implant itself to the uterus.

Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone

This is the pregnancy hormone produced by the placenta after implantation of the blastocyst and is responsible for stimulating the corpus luteum of the ovary to produce progesterone during the first three months of pregnancy.

Conception

Implantation of an ovum fertilized by a spermatozoon (embryo in the woman’s uterus).

Corpus luteum

Structure that is formed after follicle rupture and ovulation (ovulation), responsible for the production of progesterone.

 

Ovulation Dysfunction

A problem existing in the ovary either from the liberation of the ovum  or the development of it.

Embryo

Term used to describe the early stages of growth of a fertilized ovum, from conception to eight weeks of pregnancy.

Endometrium

Inner lining of uterus.

Endometriosis

Female disease that produces infertility due to the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus.

 

Estrogens

Type of female hormones, produced mainly by the ovaries from the onset of puberty to menopause, which are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts.

Follicular Phase

First half of the menstrual cycle when the development of the ovarian follicle takes place and the ovum matures.

Fertilization

Penetration of the ovum by the spermatozoon and the union of genetic materials to achieve the development of an embryo.

Follicle

Structure in the ovary that nourishes the developing egg and from which the egg is released.

Folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Hormone produced in the anterior part of the pituitary gland that stimulates the ovary in women to develop a follicle and prepare it for ovulation. In men, FSH stimulates the production of spermatozoa in the testicles.

 

Gamete

Male and female reproductive cells, spermatozoon or ovum respectively.

Gonads

Glands that produce gametes (the testicles in the man and the ovaries in the woman.

Implantation

Adhesion of the fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus (endometrium).

Luteinic Phase

Phase of the menstrual cycle starting after ovulation and ending in menstruation, during which progesterone is produced which is the hormone responsible for preparing the endometrium for the implantation of the embryo.

Luteinizing hormone

(LH) A hormone produced in the anterior part of the pituitary gland responsible for producing the final maturation of the oocyte and its expulsion by means of follicle rupture. It also stimulates the corpus luteum of the ovary to produce progesterone.

Myomatósis

Presence of benign tumors of the uterus (fibroids) that can alter its structure and sometimes cause infertility or pregnancy loss.

Oligospermia

Insufficient number of spermatozoon in ejaculations.

Oocyte

Ovum.

Ovaries

Female sex glands that produce hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and in which the eggs develop. There are two ovaries, one on each side of the pelvis.

Ovulation

Expulsion of a mature ovum in the middle of the menstrual cycle.

Primary Infertility

Couple who has never achieved a pregnancy.

Progesterone

Hormone secreted by the corpus luteum or ovary after ovulation has occurred. It is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy. It also maintains the placenta during the early stages of pregnancy to prevent abortion.

Secondary Infertility

Inability to conceive or achieve a pregnancy after having conceived and achieved one or more pregnancies.

Subfertility

Decreased fertile ability of the couple.

Spermatozoon

Male reproductive cells have important characteristics such as:

  • Count (or density): Refers to the number of sperm present.
  • Motility: refers to the percentage of sperm that demonstrates some type of forward movement.
  • Morphology: Refers to the shape or appearance of the sperm.
  • Viability: Refers to whether the sperm is alive.

Spermatogenesis

Spermatozoid production process within the seminiferous tubules of the testis.

Sterility

Absolute and irreversible inability to achieve pregnancy.

Testosterone

The male sex hormone produced in the testicles.

Unexplained Infertility

Term used when the reason of infertility is not found in the initial baseline study.

Uterus

Hollow muscular organ in which the woman supports and feeds the fetus until the moment of birth.

Vagina

Structure of the woman extending from the vulva to the cervix.

Varicocele

Dilation of the veins of the testicles that can affect the quantity or quality of spermatozoa.

Viscosity

Consistency of semen.

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